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fig. 1 the first map of Rockall
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fig. 1 the first map of Rockall Publisher in the 141st number of The Geographical Journal), March 1975; set by G. S. Holland and R. A. Gardiner according to the aerial photos by the Royal Air Force from the year 1970 (according to the authors it is not much precise; its orientation also not because of the magnetic anomalies).
fig. 2 - 5 four horizontal views of Rockall, from the four wards (according to the little map) from the east, the north, the west and the south. On the fig. 4 there is visible Halls Ledge, on fig. 4-5 there is the broken navigational beacon. On fig. 2-5 there are showed colonies of birds and sea-weed. Notice the guano-layer. Author of the photos is Andy Strangeway.
fig. 6 approximate location of Rockall
fig. 7 plastic scheme of the Rockall Plateau and Rockall Through with the map: In the south-east corner there is a part of Ireland; RB = Rockall Bank, FD = Feni Drift (Ridge), RT = Rockall Trough, FI = Faeroe Islands, HRB = Hatton-Rockall Basin, HB = Hatton Bank (according to the Ocean Drilling Program)
Months are listed chronologically from left to right (January to December).fig. 8 graph of the precipitations and temperature in the area of Rockall: blue column shows the average quantity of the precipitations in 10s mm per month; the orange line shows the temperature of the water by the sea-level in °C; the red line show the temperature of the wind by the sea-level in °C (according to Atlas okeanov, 1977)
fig. 9 graph of the wind-speed in the area of Rockall: red line shows the maximum (m per second); the blue line shows the average (according to Atlas okeanov, 1977)
fig. 10 the surface-water currents nearby the Great Britain (1 Rockall Bank; 2 Hatton Bank; 3 George Bligh Bank; 4 Lousy Bank; 5 Bill Baileys Bank; 6 Rosemary Bank; 7 Faeroe Bank; Blacker, 1982)
fig. 11 the deep-water currents of the Rockall Through and the Rockall Plateau with the origin: strong black line shows the North Atlantic deep-water, dashed line the Norwegian deep-water, the solid line shows the water from the Labrador Sea (LOB Lorien Bank; PAP Porcupine Abyssal Plain; Stroker, 1998)
fig. 12 the scheme of the origin of the water in the Rockall Through: dotted area on the left-bottom is the Labradorean water, the dotted area on the right-bottom is the overflow water, the crossed area is the Gibraltarian water and the rest is the Atlantic water (east-west; Blacker, 1982)
fig. 13 simplified sketches of sea-floor spreading of the British Isles since the end of the Jurassic (a) At the end of the Jurassic, an emerged Precambrian crustal area (the Rockall, R, microcontinent) lay between Ireland and Greenland, Sea-floor spreading began between Iberia and Newfoundland, developing a fracture zone from the Pyrenees to the Labrador Sea. (b) Early to mid-Cretaceous sea-floor spreading separated Rockall from the British shelf but was aborted, leaving the Rockall Through (RT). (c) A triple junction appears off the Bay of Biscay in the early Senonian (80Ma), and Spain begins to rotate. (d) In the Paleocene (60-65 Ma) a new spreading center begins to separate the Rockall microcontinent from Greenland. (cited from Moores, 1997)
fig. 14 Gross depositional environment maps summarizing the main depositional systems existing during the development of the mid- to late Cenozoic megasequences. Key to symbols: 1, mounded, elongate sediment drift; 2, sheeted sediment drift; 3, sediment waves; 4, bottom-current circulation, inferred in (a), present-day in (b); 5, late Eoceneearliest Oligocene lowstand fan; 6, early Oligocene reef; 7, mid-Miocene to Holocene fans; 8, interbedded drift and downslope deposits; 9, sediment-source areas; 10, Inferred land areas; 11, areas of extensive bottom-current erosion; 12, maximum extent of mid- to late Pleistocene ice-sheets. Abbreviations: HS Hebridean shelf; RT Rockall Through; IB Iceland Basin; HB Hatton Bank; HRB Hatton-Rockall Basin; RKB Rockall Bank; GBB George Bligh Bank; LB Lousy Bank; AD undersea mountain Anton-Dohrn; BBB Bill Baileys Bank; FB Faeroe Bank, FS Faeroe Shelf; WTR Wyville-Thomson Ridge; RB Rosemary Bank; a - Eocene/Oligocene, b Miocene/Holocene (cited from Stroker, 1998)
Photograph of the sea bed on Rockall Bank between 135 and 165 m depth. The picture area is about 1 square metre, and all the fish are lesser silver smelts (argentina sphyraena). (Blacker, 1982)
fig. 15 Fine coral sand with a few small pebbles. Two Brittle-stars (ophiuroid) can be seen;
fig. 19 Rockall Bank showing the distribution of the coral, Lophelia pertusa (c) (Blacker, 1982)
fig. 20 map of Britain from 1771 by French sailor Kerguelen
fig. 21 sketch showing the first landing on Rockall in 1811
fig. 22 sketch by T. Harvey, Captain of HMS Enymion, showing Rockall during the discovery in 1810
fig. 23 sketch of Rockall on the 81st page in the book A Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides (J. A. Harvey-Brown & T. E. Buckley, 1889
fig. 24 Danish steamer Norge, which wrecked on the Helens Reef in 1904 635 lives perished
fig. 25 postcard from the expedition on Rockall of French ship Pourquoi-Pas? sponsored by the French Ministry for Navy in 1921
fig. 26 plaque fastened to the rock during the installation of a navigational beton:
Site of United Kingdom
fig. 27 security pod with the flag of the Royal Navy and with two marines in full ceremonial dress; a navigational beacon above them
obr. 28 the view of the rock during the stage of four volunteers from Greenpeace sign United Nations No new oil; above the sign their solar pod; above that there is the flag of Waveland and the beacon
obr. 29 birds eye view
fig. 30 two activists inside the pod
fig. 31 the security pod and its fixation to the rock (by twelve six-tonnes straps), with the three of volunteers
fig. 32 flag of Waveland hoisted on Rockall, during the times of good weather
fig. 33 our activists from Greenpeace (from left: Al Baker, David Sims, Peter (?) and Meike Huelsman) before embarking
fig. 34 solar-powered navigational beacon fastened on the rock by the Greenpeace in 1998 after another one, repaired by Greenpeace during the 26th and 27th June; the sign:
Rockall Solar Beacon
fig. 35 simplified sketch of the claims on the Continental Shelf of the Rockall Plateau by the United Kingdom (green), Ireland (yellow), Iceland (red) and Denmark (for Faeroes; purple). In 1988, the United Kingdom signed the Continental Shelf Agreement with Ireland, and their common boundaries of the shelf are delimited the yellow-green staircase line (according to the Icelandic serer Utanrνkisrαðuneytið)
fig. 36 the cut-down of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the United Kingdom in the relation to the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1997; the solid line is the original line, the dashed is the current one (Symmons, 1998)
fig. 37 cut of the map by Mercator Published in Amsterdam in 1618. There are showed (as well as Rockall) also some phantom islands as Brazil, Flandria and Frislandt (by the northern edge)
text 1 Extract from the Fragments of Voyages and Travels by the Captain Basil Hall, published in 1831; passage from the chapter VI. Rockall, in which there is also written about the fist expedition on Rockall. (During that expedition a thick fog came and thus the ship (HMS Endymion) could not be seen from the boats sent to the rock. When the boats managed, at twilight, to reach the ship and when they asked why it was not shot from the board to localize it, the crew answered: Why, we have been doing nothing else but blaze away every ten minutes for these last five or six hours.):
In a fine autumnal morning, just a week after we had sailed from Lough Swilly, to cruise off the north of Ireland, a sail was reported on the leebeam. We bore up constantly, but no one could make out what the chase was, nor which way was she standing at least, no two of the knowing ones could be found to agree upon these matters. Here various opinions, however, presently settled into one, or nearly so for there were still some of the high-spyers who had the honesty to confess they were puzzled.
The general opinion was, that it must be a brig with very white sail aloft, while those below were quite dark as if these royals were made of cotton, and the courses of tarpaulin, a strange anomaly in seamamship, it is true, but still the best theory we could form to explain the appearances. A short time served to dispel these fancies; for we discovered, on running close to our mysterious vessel, that we had been actually chasing a rock not a ship of oak and iron, but a solid block of granite, growing, as it were, out of the sea, at a greater distance from the mainland than, I believe, any other island, or islet, or rock of the same diminutive size, is to be found in the world.
text 2: The Law of the Sea (extract from the United Nations Conventions; some definitions)
(2.1.): according to the United Nations Convention on the Continental Shelf, written in 1958:
(2.2.): according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, written in 1982:
Exclusive Economic Zone